Heterocyclic amines PART 1
Epidemiological studies have shown that the alimentation is a important factor in the appearance of cancerous diseases.
Twenty-five years ago, japanese scientists found a new group of compounds, highly mutagenic or carcinogenic, heterocyclic aromatic amines group. Heterocyclic amines have been found in meat products and fish prepared as steaks or grilled, roasted, in the pan or spitted.
Carcinogens heterocyclic amines are present in all meat prepared at temperatures of over 2732 F.
In recent years, hundreds of studies have been carried out regarding the heterocyclic amines, and this was for two reasons: firstly, in many countries are consumed large amounts of animal carcinogenicity, and, secondly, epidemiologists have found that the frequency of some cancers is much higher in countries where meat is consumed more.
Long time studies carried out on rodents and monkeys showed that heterocyclic amines are among the most strong carcinogens substances.
The research crried out on human cells showed that these amines are metabolized into bioactive compounds that harm the deoxyribonucleic acid.
So far, they identified about 20 mutagenic amines or carcinogenic. Their precursors are the following: creatine, amino acids, peptides, proteins and sugars.
In addition to meat and fish, the heterocyclic amines were found also in meat extracts, the products used to give a particular taste to food. Heterocyclic amines are formed at temperatures higher than 2732 F after a cooking time between 2 and 10 minutes.
But heterocyclic amines were also found in products that contained carbohydrates and fat prepared by heating at 1832 F, for several hours.
A surprising finding was that they can also form at temperatures below 2732 F, for example, in the smoked fish at temperature of 176-1562 F.
Heterocyclic amines were found in the flour crust of the fish and meat breaded cooked . Of course, these carcinogens have been found in poultry meat too.
Even more surprising was the observation that the mutagenic activity, carcinogen, was reduced when before frying, the meat products has been added soy protein concentrate.
Relatively recently, researchers at the Department of Nutrition at University of Agricultural Sciences, Uppsala, Sweden reached the conclusion that heterocyclic amines are found in all products of meat and fish, especially those prepared baked, grilled, pan and grilled, but also in smoked products. Custom quantity of heterocyclic amines that can be detected, it is up to 500 ng / g (nanogram = a millionth of a gram).
Despite the dangers it posed, the consumption of meat still enjoys great popularity. In fact, we can say the same about coffee, alcohol or tobacco.
Among the countries with the highest consumption of meat around the globe is Uruguay, this because the main industry in this country is raising cows.